Hospital Layout Design:Biomedical Engineering perspective


One of the challenging and life long achievements is the role played by Biomedical engineer to design and facilitate the building of an hospital .The project is involving and requires an entrepreneurship qualities to make it a success.
Lets start on the unique features an hospital design needs;

  • Remember we are dealing with patients/human beings.
  • Remember some patients have infectious diseases
  • Note the medical equipment safe installation sites.
  • Remember Air flow in theatres to have positive pressure.
  • Consider free walking space like emmanuel mentioned above
  • Consider visitors rest place and restricted points
  • Emphasize on the objective need of the hospital;why was it build,what is the need of problem
  • consider the capacity of the hospital;is it 600 bed hospital…
  • stick to standard specifications but consider innovative designs.
  • Know the target market ;is it women hospital,children hospital or general,
  • Know the purpose of the hospital;is it teaching,research,referal or cancer hospital
  • Consider accessibility point;near to highways the better.
  • Consider medical gas pipeline,Communication cables and power.
  • Consider to have Biomedical engineering workshop in every department for maintenance of medical equipment
  • Consider Accident and emergency wide and spacious Entrance and Ambulance bay
  • Consider standby Generator ,oxygen plant and alternative power supply station
  • Consider radiology or cancer and treatment centre equipment installations sites;proper lead enabled.and at one related points.
  • Consider SAFETY measures very important
    Permit me to have one of the following simple report obtained from a one day visit to Kenyatta University Teaching Research and referral hospital which is almost completed .(For case study )




acknowledge Dr.June Madete for the arrangement and coordination to get
permission and access to the referral.

also goes to KUTRRH Biomedical Engineer for accepting to pay a visit at the
site and his contribution in taking us round the Hospital.

goes to Project Manager, though we did not meet him, for accepting our visit
the site.


§Kenyatta University Teaching, Research and Referral Hospital is the only University
owned Hospital in Kenya .

§It’s a 600 bed Hospital alongside phase I ,300 Children and 300 women Hospital

§Is a contract between Government of Kenya and China implemented in Kenyatta
University which had written a proposal .

§The deal was to have a contractor from donor
country but also a team from Kenyatta university comprising of Project Manager,
Biomedical Engineer and other teams.

§It will have teaching and research as among the objectives and concentrate on
cancer treatment and other complicated ailments making it unique.

§The project will be through by the end of first quarter of 2017.

§8 theatres,24 bed ICU,10 HDU,10 NICU


§Factors considered when coming up with the Design of the Hospital are;

ü Address the need and challenges

ü Relationships among staff,patients,doctors and visitors

ü Approach to be taken

ü Infectious control (management of patients flow)

ü Space planning

ü Accessibility

ü Equipment sites.


§Its situated at ground floor with wide always open doors for easy offloading and
transfer of patients on emergency.

30 beds capacity

§Its horizontally build for easy access.


§Equipped with almost all medical equipment needed by patients,

§Has Emergency X-ray, 2 Emergency Theatre,Doctors offices.

§Has waiting area, patients reception filtered according to their extremity.

§Has recovery unit, BED
HEAD Unit for Medical gas supply

§Its situated at 1st floor above A&E.



§Has well controlled room, with air conditioners, air filters.

one direction flow, IN and OUT with 1st
Anesthetic room

§System used is Modular and gas supply is Pendant/suspended allow
circular rotation movement around the patient

§Pendant has gas supply,Power,Data cables, monitor

§Medical at 4 bar and surgical air at 7 bar

§4 elevators,2 changing rooms

§6 main theatres sluice rooms ,anesthetic room has 5 gases(medical
air,Oxygen,vacuum,N2O,CO2),Power and AGSS.

§Should have positive pressure to drive out air and restrain incoming unfiltered air

§Has HVSC system.

§Material used for theatre walls;

Øfire protected,

ØAnti-static floor,


Øsound proof.

§Corners should be curved and smooth for easy cleaning.

§6 Recovery rooms and a TSSU door with sliding doors to safe on space. This is
where patients recovers either for short cases healing takes 12 hours or for
transfer to ward/ICU

wings,2 ICU and HDU and 6 general wards

§Next to Theatre behind it for easy access between ICU and theatre.

§Has wet sides with equipment dealing with fluids like syringe pumps and dry sides
like monitors

§Has pendant system of gas supply not Bed head Unit.

§Has ICU labs theatre

§Has special wards

HDU has two pendant system one fixed to safe on space


wings,20 bed dialysis wards

dialysis machines 1 standby and 1 working at general supply

§Situated at 1st floor

§Has access to medical gas supply

at ground floor far left end for easy access of the services and installation
of heavy equipment.

next to washrooms after realizing many patients need to access them.

have procedure rooms, recovery rooms, changing rooms and control work station.

x-ray machines

working and research purposes.

ØSliding doors to safe on space and no escape of radiation.

ØManufactured by Philips

CT scan

Ø128 slice for operations

Ø256 slice for research since is more powerful than 128 sliced one

ØManufactured by Philips


T for
operations and 3T meant for research


for operations and another one for research.

LINAC(Linear Accelerator)

on its own building separated.

§Requires a big space

§Requires thick walls of 2.5 meters due to

§Used for treatment of cancer at a most accurate proximity


§Due to both the two parties had teams appointed to oversee the projects, they had
to adjust the design to suits the standards realized after the first phase of
the project.

§The equipment had not been completely installed .


Broader ways of hospital design should be innovative ,unique but maintain standard specifications and do not compromise on quality,safety and ethics/morality.


I find nature and space of elevators and stairs in hospitals critical for movement between floors. This tends not to be considered in many hospital design.


Emmanuel very true check the updates now


This looks nice. Im interested in the security of patients in terms of drugs delivery. Therefore will look into incorporating safe drug delivery system during the design


I am pleased to hear that Chaka,would like to know more about your system====>


I have got one working system that is dealing with pills. And working on another one that will take care other drugs that are not in pills for. I.e liquid powdered drugs


Excellent. Good for maximizing patient experience.


I like this platform ,i like biomedical,@Kevinkoech your topic is very real i like it,try to make it a success.


@collo thanks a lot appreciate that


Hello team! lets share ideas and make them real


great platform here kevin